Waffle Pattern Pressed Glass Cup
Pressed Glass from Portugal.
Glass produced in mechanised processes – either blown into shape using compressed air or machine-pressed - has existed since the beginning of the 19th Century. The first production lines appeared in America, while European production plants, such as those in the Portuguese Marinha Grande, followed soon after, opening up new possibilities for the business: pressed glass made decorative glass affordable.
Each colour takes on its own charm, depending on the thickness of the glass and the cooling rate after the mechanical pressing process in the mould. The waffle pattern of the cups provides character not to mention a pleasant feel in the hand.
An Excursion into Economic History.
One of the very first glass factories in Europe was built in the 18th century, in Marinha Grande, where glassware was produced until 2003. According to the historical records, there was plenty of wood and sand (with a high proportion of silicon dioxide) and other basic materials to be found in the area for use in the glass furnaces. The Englishman, William Guilherme Stephens, armed with a royal privilege, had glassmakers from all over Europe come to Lisbon, which previously had been shattered in 1755 by the Lisbon earthquake. It was Stephens outspoken goal to establish a glass industry with national scope, to lead the country into modernity in his field and towards economic independence. Stephens seized the (tax-free) moment and soon became master of the country's largest glass factory. When he died, the legacy made his brother the richest man in Lisbon, and one who organised eccentric banquets. The festivities, to top it all off, were well known for the vast expanses of glass, which were shattered as drama runs its course. The generations passed, the fortunes evaporated: banks and swindlers plunged citizens into misfortune with "Portuguese shares certificates" – which on closer examination make the candleholder quite suitable for a house altar dedicated to the security of money investments.
According to the oldest written recipe for the production of glass, "If you take 60 parts sand, 180 parts ash from seaweed, and five parts chalk, you get glass". The recipe comes from the library of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal. Judging by the archaeological evidence, the first known glass workshops were probably located in the vicinity of today's Luxor. The ancient Egyptians already knew how to colour glass by adding metal oxides. And coloured glass bars, which were to be further processed for use in all sorts of articles, were objects of trade in the Mediterranean region, for example, those found in a shipwreck from 1400 BCE, just off the coast of Turkey.
However, to date, and although this is one of the oldest materials in the world, not all of the secrets of glass have been deciphered; there are still uncertainties in many questions regarding atomic structure and composition. What is generally accepted is a hypothesis deriving from solid-state physics assuming that glass shares the same bonding conditions like those found in crystals. A similarly complex scientific research field is the process of human colour perception; its components include the physical basis (colour spectrum), the psychological underpinning (colour valance) and the physiological base (colour stimulus), as well as linguistic aspects of colour perception. Indeed, a person's perception of colours is a subjective process, and different people see the same illuminated object in different ways. For example, what for one person appears to be glaring is for another person better described as a strong, lush colour.
Article Number 26880
The rest of the glass is composed of 71% silica, 18% sodium oxide, 8% calcium oxide, 1% potassium oxide.
One item each. Volume 170 ml. Height 10 cm. Weight 320 g.
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